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Instructions to Authors

General information

As announced in the call for papers, selected papers about freshwater aquatic ecosystems will be included in a book on this topic, whereas other manuscripts will be submitted for publication to Ecological Modelling. Therefore the following instructions have been adapted from those for Ecological Modelling in order to be fully compatible with them. However, manuscripts for this conference must be submitted only electronically and hardcopies will not be accepted.

Manuscripts should be submitted by the end of April via e-mail in order to speed up the reviewing process. Microsoft Word files will be preferred, but other word processor formats will be also accepted. The Authors are requested to submit their manuscript, with tables and figures, and the full contact details of three suggested reviewers, to the following e-mail address:


As Microsoft Word and other word processors tend to produce huge files (especially after inserting figures) please check the file size before sending it. If needed, the manuscript file can be compressed. If the size of your file is still very large (e.g. >3 Mb), please send a message to the above address (man@isei3.org) in order to arrange a suitable procedure for file transfer (e.g. via FTP or via ordinary mail).

Submission of a manuscript is understood to imply that the manuscript is original and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. Upon acceptance of the manuscript, the author(s) will be asked to transfer the copyright of the article to the publisher.

Manuscripts will be reviewed by at least two referees that will be selected among the suggested reviewers and/or other scientists.

Manuscripts should be written in English. Authors whose native language is not English are strongly advised to have their manuscripts checked by an English-speaking colleague prior to submission.

Manuscripts should be double spaced, using Times New Roman 12 pt, with wide margins (at least 25 mm) and, if possible, with numbered lines (the same format applies to body text as well as to abstracts, footnotes, references, etc.). Every page of the manuscript, including the title page, references, tables, etc., should be numbered. However, in the text no reference should be made to page numbers; if necessary, one may refer to sections. Italicize words that should be in italics, and do not italicize any other words. Avoid excessive usage of italics to emphasize part of the text.

Organisation of the manuscripts

Manuscripts in general should be organized in the following order:

  • Title (should be clear, descriptive and not too long)
  • Name(s) of author(s)
  • Complete postal address(es) of affiliations
  • Full telephone, Fax No. and e-mail address of the corresponding author
  • Present address(es) of author(s) if applicable
  • Complete correspondence address to which the proofs should be sent
  • Abstract
  • Keywords (indexing terms), normally 3-6 items
  • Introduction
  • Material studied, area descriptions, methods, techniques
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgements and any additional information concerning research grants, etc.
  • References
  • Tables
  • Figures
  • Figure captions

In typing the manuscript, titles and subtitles should not be run within the text. They should be typed on a separate line, without indentation. Use lower-case lettertype and number first- and second-order headings.

Special instructions to the copy editor or typesetter should be encircled using a double border line. The typesetter will then know that the enclosed matter is not to be set in type.

The Organising Committee reserves the privilege of returning to the author for revision accepted manuscripts and illustrations which are not in the proper form given in this guide.

Specific instructions


SI units should be used.


The abstract should be clear, descriptive and not longer than 400 words.


Large tables should be avoided. Reversing columns and rows will often reduce the dimensions of a table, as well as dividing it into two or more parts. Tables should be numbered according to their sequence in the text. The text should include references to all tables. Each table should be typewritten on a separate page of the manuscript. Tables should never be included in the text. Each table should have a brief and self-explanatory title. Column headings should be brief, but sufficiently explanatory. Standard abbreviations of units of measurement should be added between parentheses. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Leave some extra space between the columns instead. Any explanation essential to the understanding of the table should be given as a footnote at the bottom of the table.


Illustrations (line drawings and photographs) should be submitted separately. If they are included in the same file as the text (e.g. in a Microsoft Word file), they should be inserted at the end of the manuscript, after the tables, and each figure should be inserted in a separate page. Pasting graphics as "Picture", using the Paste Special menu entry, usually allows to keep the file size as small as possible, because only the graphics are imported, with no links to the data file from which they have been copied. Moreover, figures inserted as "Picture" are in vectorial format and can be nicely rescaled with no effects on their quality. Separate postscript figures are also accepted. High resolution bitmap files are accepted for photographs in the evaluation phase, whereas sharp and glossy photographs copies are required in the final version. Reproductions of photographs already printed cannot be accepted and photographs are only acceptable if they have good contrast and intensity.

Illustrations should be numbered according to their sequence in the text. References should be made in the text to each illustration. Each illustration should be identified by its number at the bottom of the page or in the file name (in case of separate files). Illustrations should be of such a size as to allow a reduction of 50%, so make sure that the size of the lettering is big enough to allow such a reduction without becoming illegible. The lettering should be in English. Use the same kind of lettering throughout the manuscript. Each illustration should have a caption. The captions to all illustrations should be typed on a separate sheet of the manuscript. Explanations should be given in the separate legend. Drawn text in the illustrations should be kept to a minimum. Colour illustrations cannot usually be included, unless the cost of their reproduction is paid for by the author.


All publications cited in the text should be presented in a list of references following the text of the manuscript. The manuscript should be carefully checked to ensure that the spelling of author's names and dates are exactly the same in the text as in the reference list. In the text refer to the author's name (without initial) and year of publication, followed - if necessary - by a short reference to appropriate pages. Examples: "Since Peterson (1988) has shown that ...." "This is in agreement with results obtained later (Kramer, 1989, pp. 12-16)". If reference is made in the text to a publication written by more than two authors the name of the first author should be used followed by "et al.". This indication, however, should never be used in the list of references. In this list names of first author and co-authors should be mentioned. References cited together in the text should be arranged chronologically. The list of references should be arranged alphabetically on authors' names, and chronologically per author. If an author's name in the list is also mentioned with co-authors the following order should be used: publications of the single author, arranged according to publication dates - publications of the same author with one co-author - publications of the author with more than one co-author. Publications by the same author(s) in the same year should be listed as 1974a, 1974b, etc.

Use the following system for arranging your references:

a. For periodicals

Van Orden, G.N. and Uchrin, C.G., 1993. The study of dissolved oxygen dynamics in the Whippany River, New Jersey using the QUAL2E model. Ecol. Modelling, 70: 1-17.

b. For books

De Groot, W.T., 1992. Environmental Science Theory. Studies in Environmental Science Vol. 52. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 584 pp.

c. For multi-author books

Jørgensen, S.E., 1988. Modelling eutrophication of shallow lakes. In: W.J. Mitsch, M. Stras kraba and S.E. Jørgensen (Editors), Wetland Modelling, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 177-188.

The titles of periodicals mentioned in the list of references should be abbreviated according to the International List of Periodical Title Word Abbreviations. In the case of publications in any language other than English, the original title is to be retained. However, the titles of publications in non-Latin alphabets should be transliterated, and a notation such as (in Russian) or (in Greek, with English abstract) should be added. Work accepted for publication but not yet published should be referred to as "in press". References concerning unpublished data and personal communications should not be cited in the reference list but may be mentioned in the text.


All formulae in a manuscript should be presented in a consistent and clear way, with respect to the meaning of each symbol and its correct position. Unusual symbols must be collected in a separate list giving a clear explanation of each symbol. Moreover it will be helpful if each special symbol is identified (by name, in a double line box) in the manuscript at its first occurrence. Display each formula which is longer than approximately one third of a typed line. Moreover display important and complicated formulae. Avoid long paragraphs containing many formulae but no displays.

Do not use complicated juxtapositions of symbols, especially in the text. Also try to avoid complicated subscripts and superscripts; second-order indices especially may present difficulties as to their size and position, and third-order indices are taboo. Although the typesetter will not copy spaces automatically, their presence in the manuscript may be helpful for instructing the typesetter. As a rule, spaces are inserted between complicated factors of products (and similar expressions) and before and after relation (=, epsilon, ?, ...), function (+, ?, ×, ...) and conjunction (?, ?, ?, ?, …) symbols.

For expressing mathematical notation, several special typefounts are available, the most commonly used of which is italic. Other available typefounts are: bold Roman, sans serif, Greek, script, German (Fraktur) and Hebrew (aleph and beth only). Roman type is used for special purposes, in particular for all expressions (abbreviations) consisting of more than one letter but denoting a single function (e.g., exp, log, sin, cos, lim, inf, sup, card, dom, ran, cl, int, ...); the reason for this is to distinguish these expressions from composites consisting of several single symbols. Roman type is also used for properties (e.g. T1, T2, ...) and for abbreviations (e.g., a.e., a.s., s.t., mod, ...).

The height of expressions in the text should never exceed one line. In many cases there are acceptable alternatives which enable reduction of the height. Stacked fractions may be set using a slash or negative exponent. Numerical fractions can be set in small type, so that they will fit in one line.

Formulae in the text should be clearly separated from each other. It is advised not to break formulae if this can be avoided; it may be misleading and it often proves difficult to explain to the typesetter how the formulae have to beset. Diagrams of sets and morphisms can be typeset by the compositor. Good results can only be obtained if the diagrams in the manuscript have been arranged clearly. Special attention should be paid to the proper arrangement of the arrows (i.e. always aligned with the middle of the formulae).

In order to facilitate typesetting it is advised to arrange each diagram in the simplest possible way, i.e. try to obtain the maximum proportion of horizontal and vertical arrows. Curved and bent arrows should certainly be avoided. Sometimes it may be possible to partition complicated diagrams into several subdiagrams.

Large diagrams should be numbered and referred to in the text by their numbers since it may be necessary to place them differently from the manuscript.

In chemical formulae, the valence of ions should be given as, e.g. Ca2+ and CO2-3,not as Ca++ and CO--3. Isotope numbers should precede the symbols, e.g.18O. The repeated writing of chemical formulae in the text is to be avoided where reasonably possible; instead, the name of the compound should be given in full. Exceptions may be made in the case of a very long name occurring very frequently, or in the case of a compound being described as the end product of a gravimetric determination (e.g., phosphate as P2O5).


Footnotes should only be used if absolutely essential. In most cases it should be possible to incorporate the information in normal text. If used, they should be numbered in the text, indicated by superscript numbers, and kept as short as possible.


Authors and editors are, by general agreement, obliged to accept the rules governing biological nomenclature, as laid down in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, and the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. All biotica (crops, plants, insects, birds, mammals, etc.) should be identified by their scientific names when the English term is first used, with the exception of common domestic animals. All biocides and other organic compounds must be identified by their Geneva names when first used in the text. Active ingredients of all formulations should be likewise identified. For chemical nomenclature, the conventions of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and the official recommendations of the IUPAC-IUB Combined Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature should be followed.


An author, when quoting from someone else's work or when considering reproducing an illustration or table from a book or journal article, should make sure that he is not infringing a copyright. Although in general an author may quote from other published works, he should obtain permission from the holder of the copyright if he wishes to make substantial extracts or to reproduce tables, plates, or other illustrations. If the copyright-holder is not the author of the quoted or reproduced material, it is recommended that the permission of the author should also be sought. Material in unpublished letters and manuscripts is also protected and must not be published unless permission has been obtained. A suitable acknowledgement of any borrowed material must always be made.


Deadline for manuscript submission:
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